Solar Farms: How Does It Work?

Solar farms have been mushrooming quite rapidly worldwide, especially in the US. You will find them in all shapes and sizes. From smaller solar farms powering small communities to the largest solar farms in the world that power thousands of households. Ever wondered why they’re so popular?

Simply put, a solar farm can save you from extensive electricity bills and protect the planet from dying. How? Before we get into this, let’s first answer the question – what is a solar farm or a solar field? You will find all the necessary information in just a few scrolls!

What Is a Solar Farm?

Solar farms are also known as “solar fields,” “solar parks,” or “solar power stations.”’ To understand solar farms, imagine a large field. But instead of crops, it contains photovoltaic solar sheets. They are mounted on the ground directly under the sun.

Now, how do solar farms work? In a solar farm, solar panels all function together to trap the sun’s energy. This energy is then converted to cheap electricity, which is distributed for consumption by the people.

Further, the harvested solar energy distribution is through grids and not directly to the people in their homes. This makes these farms different from individual solar panels mounted on rooftops. Solar farms or solar projects can vary depending on the size and scale of the farm and the desired production level.

Solar Fields: The Different Types of Models

Solar farms have started to pop up in huge numbers in the United States and across the world. They can be summed up into two distinct categories:

  • Community solar farms

Utility-scale solar power: Detailed run through

Utility-scale solar projects comprise enormous land areas. These land areas host thousands of solar panels stretching for miles. A large number of solar installations generate a massive amount of energy. This energy is utilized as electricity. However, the “utility-scale” idea becomes faulty when it comes to distributing solar energy.

The distribution of energy produced by utility-scale solar farms is through high-voltage power lines and electricity grids. However, this kind of distribution is not unique to utility-scale projects. Solar installations, whether isolated on a rooftop or spread across acres of land, are almost always connected to a power grid.

In any case, utility-scale solar fields typically rank among the largest solar farms in the world. They serve as an excellent substitute for fossil fuels. They are a reliable energy and electricity source. Additionally, one can utilize clean energy at reasonable or even cheap prices.

Moreover, utility-scale projects for solar farms can usually produce 1 megawatt to 2,000 megawatts of energy. As a result, a large utility-scale solar farm can potentially supply about 300,000 homes with electricity!

Community Solar Farms

As evident by the name, community solar farms are primarily for communities of people who all pitch in for their setup. While Utility-scale solar projects are on a commercial solar farm level, community solar farms are much smaller in size and production.

Hence, such solar farms are only set up for small local communities or businesses. Their maximum production capacity is 5 megawatts. Given that community solar farms are set up by the people, the power created is distributed amongst them. As such, depending on your investment and the number of people sharing in it, electricity bills could be reduced to some extent.

Again, community solar farms function similarly to how solar farms work on a utility-scale. They involve a sufficiently large area for the installation of solar panels. The panels trap sunlight in order to produce electric power. Solar energy is distributed to the contributing houses through the power and a large grid. The bills are adjusted accordingly based on the house size and electricity consumption.

Finally, community solar projects are regarded as distributed energy. In sum, the energy produced is distributed among community houses within a close range. Consequently, the power supply remains undisturbed even if the grid malfunctions. In comparison, large-scale utility plants produce energy that can travel for miles and miles. Basically, there are unique benefits to each model.

Utility-Scale Solar vs. Community Solar Farms

There are a few key differences between the two kinds of solar projects. One obvious difference is in terms of the scale of the solar farms. Basically, utility solar farms are much larger in size compared to community solar farms. Accordingly, utility-scale and community solar projects have differing capacities for production.

While utility-scale designs usually produce 1 to 2,000 MG energy, community solar farms usually have a production capacity of under 5MW. You can even find ones that produce less than 100 KW of energy. Correspondingly, energy from utility solar farms can travel many miles through powerlines, which is not feasible for community solar fields.

Additionally, a utility-scale solar farm can often function as a commercial solar farm. However, community farms cannot function commercially. Therefore, they only serve to generate power for a few houses in a local community.

Finally, one last key difference is regarding the distribution of the energy generated by the solar fields. Community solar farms provide energy to people who have initially paid to have a share in the power produced. Contrarily, utility solar farms disseminate their power into power lines. As such, they serve both utility companies as well as their customers.

The Largest Solar Farms in the World

Keeping in mind the climate crisis on our heads and ever-increasing electricity bills, many nations have switched towards renewable energy options such as solar energy. The extent of producing renewable energy is expected to rise by 8%. Of this, the contribution of solar energy would be about 60%.

Today, China is the leading giant in generating energy through solar power. However, others are quickly following in these footsteps too! Here is a compilation of some of the largest solar farms in the world listed for the years 2021 and 2022.

1. Bhadla – India

Installed capacity: 2245 Mega Watts

The world’s largest solar farm goes by the name of Bhadla. It spans 14,000 acres of land. It’s found in Rajasthan’s Jodhpur district. This solar farm can generate about 2.25 gigawatts, which is extraordinary!

This enormous solar installation project features upward of 10 million solar panels. This required a capital expenditure of 1.3 billion dollars. Bhadla solar farm efficiently produces renewable electricity by harnessing the power of the Rajasthan desert’s glaring sunlight.

2. Huanghe Hydropower Hainan Solar Park – China

Installed capacity: 2200 Mega Watts

The solar park, situated in the Qinghai province, is China’s largest solar installation project. The production capacity of 2.2 gigawatts is massive. Huanghe Hydropower initiated this solar park project, and its development cost around 2.3 billion dollars.

This solar farm became functional in 2020 and is spread across 564 acres. Today, there are plans in the making to increase the park’s capacity to 10 Giga Watts.

3. Pavagada Solar Park – India

Installed capacity: 2050 Mega Watts

Another solar park earning the name of one of the largest solar farms in the world is located in the Tumkur region of Karnataka. The Pavagada solar park spans an area of 13,000 acres easily. The humungous 2 billion dollar investment in this installation resulted in a massive production capacity of 2.05 Giga Watts.

As one of India’s top solar power plants, Pavagada produces 22% of the total power in Karnataka.

4. Benban Solar Park – Egypt

Installed capacity: 1650 mega Watts

Benban Solar Park is found in the Benban village of Aswan. It is home to the biggest solar farm in Africa – the Benban solar park. This gigantic complex of solar plants comprises a total of 41 solar plants with a total production capacity of 1.6 Giga Watts.

This solar facility, spanning 9,000 acres, powers a ginormous number of 4,20,000 houses at the moment.

5. Tengger Desert Solar Park – China

Installed capacity: 1547 Mega Watta

The 5th largest solar field in the world is found in Ningxia, China. The farm covers a land area of 1200 km2 in the Tengger desert. Owing to its sufficient production capacity of 1547 MW, it can power 600,000 houses.

Currently, the government in China is aiming to expand the size and capacity of the solar farm.

6. Noor Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates

Installed capacity: 1,177 MW.

As a commercial solar farm, the Noor Abu Dhabi facility has a production capacity of 1.2 Giga Watts. The solar field comprises 3.2 million solar panels and spans an area of 8 km. This particular solar farm has reduced carbon emissions by 1 million metric tons.

7. Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park – UAE

Installed capacity: 1,013 MW

This facility has a capacity of 1013 MW. It is the 7th largest solar field in the world. However, expanding the production capacity to 5 Giga Watts is underway. Apart from a solar field, the facility also comprises a research and development center.

8. Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park – India

Installed capacity: 1,000 MW

The Kurnool solar farm is located in the Andhra Pradesh region of India. It occupies a land area of 24 km2. The investment cost for this project was around 980 million dollars. As such, it has a production capacity of 1 GW.

9. Datong Solar Power – China

Installation capacity: 1,000 MW

Although the total capacity of the Datong Solar power facility for the long term is (expected to be) 3 GW, it is still under construction at the moment. Therefore, its current production capacity is 1.07 GW.

10.NP Kunta – India

Installation capacity: 978 MW

NP Kunta is also among the largest solar farms in the world. The solar field spans an area of 32 square kilometers in the NP Kunta region of India. Similar to many other solar power projects, the NP Kunta solar facility is also up for expansion. The total capacity planned for the solar farm is 1,500 MW.

11. Longyangxia Dam Salor Park – China

Installed capacity: 850 Mega Watts

Yet another example of a solar farm in China proves how far ahead China is compared to other countries in switching to renewable energy sources. The solar farm has been under expansion since 2013.

The initial production capacity of the farm was only 320 megawatts. However, now, that capacity has been increased to 850 megawatts, One interesting fact about this particular solar field is that it functions together with a hydroelectric power station.

12.Villanueva Solar Park – Mexico

Installed capacity: 828 Mega Watta

The lone entry from Mexico as a country investing in solar farms is undoubtedly impressive. The Vilannuela Solar Park in Villa Hidalgo, Coahuila, is located in the state’s northwest.

The solar farm has the capacity to produce 828 MW of energy. Enel Green Power México was the entity responsible for developing this solar facility. The investment cost for this turned out to be $710 million.

13.Copper Mountain Solar Facility – United States

Installed capacity: 802 Mega Watts

It’s no surprise that the US is represented among the biggest solar farms globally. The largest solar PV facility in the US, with a capacity of 58 MW, is the Copper Mountain Solar Facility in Boulder City, Nevada.

Sempra Generation was responsible for the execution of this project. After the project wrapped up in March 2021, it again became the largest solar farm in the nation, with an output of 802 MW.

Environmental Impacts of Solar Farms

Negative impacts:

Energy Demand. Setting up a solar farm requires a massive amount of energy and funding upfront. Manufacturing, transportation, and other such processes require energy that is dependent on fossil fuels. This means that setting up this renewable alternative has an immense environmental cost. That is because all this energy used will be compensated for using coal, gas, and other fossil fuels.

Chemical Usage. There is heavy chemical usage in production and manufacturing. Many of these chemicals can be super dangerous. Hence, depending on the manufacturer, the disposal of the chemicals may be improper. Companies looking to save cash by cutting corners may not spend as much time or money on proper chemical disposal. Therefore, such hazardous chemicals could easily contaminate water bodies, agricultural fields, and the air and cause many other environmental problems.

Recycling. Although there hasn’t been any recycling issue when it comes to disposing of any component of the solar panels, it could be a future issue. Countries with poor disposal and recycling programs may find it difficult to recycle the damaged corpses of solar panels.

Land Usage. Setting up solar fields requires a massive land area. Such massive land areas with adequate sunlight provide competition for agricultural fields or forests. Additionally, solar farms can not necessarily share the land with agricultural fields. So, this might cause a decline in sufficient agricultural land, causing a food shortage.

Ecological Impact. Land clearing for solar farms is a huge risk to ecological diversity. Not only does this have a negative impact on vegetative life but also the wildlife. Where animals lose their habitat, the clearance of greenery and/or agriculture can have an adverse environmental impact. This could be in terms of rainfall, drought, drainage, etc.

When it comes to setting up a large solar farm, major concerns are associated. Especially if we talk about a commercial solar farm. So, despite their massive positive impact on the environment, the upfront cost of setting them up brings about disastrous effects on the environment too!

Positive impacts:

Reduction in greenhouse emissions. A solar farm does not necessarily have to be massive in order to have a positive environmental impact. Even small community solar farms are great for reducing carbon emissions. If, for instance, solar energy is responsible for 80% of a household’s power consumption, it can reduce carbon emissions produced by burning 150,000 pounds of coal.

Water pollution. This is a more hidden yet crucial advantage of solar farms. The manufacturing and setup processes of solar farms require water. However, the amount of water needed to produce electricity through solar power is significantly less than in other production modes. Using solar farms and solar energy, there is hardly any risk of using up all the water resources. There is an even lower risk of contaminating any water supply.

Reduction in the dependency on finite resources. As a renewable energy source and a promising alternative, solar energy is great for eliminating our dependency on non-renewable energy sources. As such, setting up solar farms prevents us from a risky and expensive future with a lack of fossil fuels for energy.

Lack of maintenance. Renewable energy alternatives such as solar farms are not only a long-term solution. In fact, they require minimal maintenance, making them a cheaper long-term solution. However, this excludes the hefty upfront cost. Although solar farm grants could help reduce the upfront cost.

Kateryna Ryzha

Kateryna Ryzha

Kateryna is an experienced writer with a focus in solar energy. She is a specialist in several topics related to energy efficiency, technical applications, renewable energy, and more as a consequence of her extensive reading.

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